2023 JUPEB Government Past Questions and Answers for Candidates (PDF Download), 2023 JUPEB Government Past Questions and Answers for Candidates (PDF Download)
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2023 JUPEB Government Questions
State refers to a politically organized community or entity that exercises authority and control over a defined territory and its inhabitants. It is a sovereign political organization that governs and manages the affairs of its citizens within a specific geographic boundary.
(2B Pick Any Three)
(i) Popular Sovereignty: the modern state is based on the principle that all citizens possess certain rights and freedoms, and the ultimate authority and power lies with the people in the form of a constitution or other laws.
(ii) Territorial Integrity: the modern state is founded upon a clearly defined and recognized territorial boundary. This boundary is protected from external interference or attack.
(iii) Government: the modern state has an effective government capable of making and enforcing laws and exercising its authority within the boundaries of the state.
(iv) Citizenship: the modern state has a clear definition of citizenship and rights associated with it. It also sets out rules for determining the citizenship status of individuals living within the state’s borders.
(v) Law: the modern state establishes a legal system that defines the relationships between citizens, between citizens and the state, and between state and non-state entities.
(vi) Monopoly Over the Use of Force: the modern state is the sole legitimate authority for the use of force within its territory. This is to protect its citizens from external violence and internal civil unrest.
Public administration is the implementation of government policies and programs to effectively and efficiently solve public problems and meet the needs of the society. It involves managing public resources, making decisions, and implementing policies in a way that promotes the public interest.
(Pick Any Three)
(i) The Classical Theory: This is the most prominent theory which emphasizes the need for efficiency and rationality in public administration. It focuses on a scientific approach to problem solving and uses principles of hierarchy, bureaucracy, specialization, and standardization to achieve organizational goals.
(ii) The Human Relations Theory: This theory is based on the idea that employees should be viewed as capable of independent thought and action and should be allowed to exercise autonomy and creativity. It stresses the importance of motivation, communication, cooperation, and team work in achieving organizational objectives.
(iii) The Systems Theory: This theory focuses on the interaction between different components of an organization and how they work together to achieve organizational goals. It emphasizes the need to consider the “big picture” when making decisions and understanding the implications of those decisions.
(iv) The New Public Management Theory: This theory emphasizes the need for flexibility and innovation in the public sector. It calls for outsourcing and privatization of some government services, as well as the use of private sector practices and technology to improve public sector performance.
(v) The Political Theory: This theory suggests that public administration is shaped by the political environment it operates in. It argues that public administrators must take into account political considerations when developing policies and implementing programs.
(vi) The Public Choice Theory: This theory examines how individual preferences and collective decisions contribute to public policy. It suggests that public policy is shaped by the desires, incentives, and calculations of individuals and groups, rather than solely by “the public interest”.
(Pick Any Three)
(i) Broader representation: The constitution provided for an expanded Legislative Council, with increased representative seats for various interest groups, including educated Africans, women, and European settlers, allowing for greater representation of minorities.
(ii) Increased rights for African citizens: The Constitution allowed African people to be eligible for certain elective offices in the government, the freedom of movement inside the colony, and the right to purchase and own property.
(iii) A more democratic system: The constitution provided for elected officials at the executive, legislative, and local levels and introduced the concept of universal suffrage, allowing all citizens over age 21 to vote.
(iv) Constitutional protection: The document provided a legal framework for protecting and promoting human rights in the colony.
(v) An independent judiciary: The constitution provided for an independent judicial system with its own separate set of laws and courts.
(vi) Civil liberties: The document provided for freedom of speech, assembly, and religion.
(vii) Good governance: The constitution provided the framework for the creation of effective and efficient government institutions.
(Pick Any Two)
(i) Limited representation: Women and non-European settlers were not adequately represented in the Legislative Council.
(ii) Discriminatory citizenship laws: The constitution did not extend equal citizenship rights to people of African descent.
(iii) Reservation of powers for the Governor: The document gave the Governor the power to veto any proposed laws that he felt were contrary to British colonial interests.
(iv) Limited civil rights: The document did not provide for the right of labor unions to organize or the right of workers to strike.
(v) Lack of autonomy: The document did not allow for any measure of self-government or autonomy from Britain.
(vi) Lack of reform: The document did not include any provisions for economic and social reform.
(vii) Limited financial powers: The document did not provide the colony with the ability to raise taxes or impose tariffs.
Nationalism refers to a strong sense of identity and loyalty towards one’s own nation or country. It is a political ideology that promotes the interests and rights of a nation, often emphasizing its cultural heritage, language, history, and territorial rights.
(i) Strengthening of Borders: Nationalism has strongly influenced West African countries by strengthening their borders and giving them a sense of national identity.
(ii) Economic Development: Nationalism has encouraged the development of domestic industries and the adoption of protectionist policies that have helped spur economic growth.
(iii) Cultural Sovereignty: With nationalism, countries in West Africa have been able to maintain their own unique culture and identity. This has helped promote social stability and a sense of pride.
(iv) Political Stability: With strong nationalistic feelings among the population, political leaders in West Africa are better able to build strong and stable governments that are focused on serving their citizenry.
(v) Pride in Heritage: Nationalism has enabled people in West Africa to take pride in their heritage and to celebrate their unique cultural institutions.
(vi) Unity of People: Nationalism has helped to create a unified sense of purpose and collective identity among the people of West Africa, allowing them to stand together and fight for their rights.
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