2022 Arabic waec expo




The difference between the value of imports and the value of exports of a country in a specific period of time is called the balance of trade. When imports are greater than exports, it is known as an unfavourable balance of trade.

(i) Non-similarity in products: Both countries produce goods and services which are not similar.
(ii) High level of technology: The increase for high volume of trade between developing and advanced countries is due to the high level of technology in the latter.
(iii) High level of savings: The high level of savings in developed countries makes production cheaper; hence they can easily export their products to developing countries.
(iv) Colonial ties: The inclination of some developing countries to their colonial masters has helped to increase the volume of trade between the nations.
(v) Differences in import duties: There are higher differences in import duties imposed on imported goods in both countries.
(vi) Differences in prices of goods: There are higher differences in prices of goods produced by both countries in order to earn foreign exchange. Foreign goods are cheaper than local ones.
(vii) Preference for imported goods: Developing countries like Nigeria has preference for goods produced by advanced countries; hence, the high volume of trade.

(i) Encouraging specialization in production.
(ii) Formation of an African economic community.
(iii) There should be improvement in technology.
(iv) Encouraging the patronage of locally made goods by other countries in Africa.
(v) There should be protection from foreign competition.
(vi) There should be construction of trans-continental transport network.
(vii) The saving capacity of the people should be improved by way of salary/wages.


Tourism is the practice of travelling for pleasure or the business of offering information, accomodations, transportation and other services to tourists. In other words, tourism is the practice which involves the visiting of people to places of interest where they can relax, derive pleasure and entertainment.


(i) Favourable climate: For tourism to strive, the climate of the environment must be favourable se that tourists can relax and themselves. enjoy

(ii) Fine beaches: In Nigeria, there exist beautiful beaches along the coast. Such beautiful beaches include the Bar beach, Lekki and Badagry beaches.

(iii) Wild life: In Nigeria, there also exist beautiful wide life or game reserves such as Yankari and Borgu Game Reserves.

(iv) Effective publicity: For tourism to strive in Nigeria, there must be enough publicity to create awareness for the tourists on possible areas of attraction.

(v) Beautiful scenery: For tourism to grow, there must be natural and man made scenery where people can relax and entertain themselves.

(vi) Good transport network or communication: There must be good transportation system who will promote the movement of tourists without any obstructions. Vehicles and good roads are key to good tourism.


(i) Inadequate funding: In Nigeria, the tourism industry is poorly funded. Poor funding has led to the poor development of the sub- sector.

(ii) Lack of access roads: In Nigeria, there is basically lack of access roads to most resort centres. Many of the roads are in bad shape and this tends not to attract tourists to such centres.

(iii) Poor publicity: Lack of effective publicity or communication system for publicizing the scenery, wildlife and cultural attractions to visitors is a big problem in the country.

(iv) Inadequate personnel: One of the problems of developing tourism attractions in Nigeria is the inadequacy of competent and trained tourism personnel. Very few personnel are trained and competent.

(v) Lack of private investment: In Nigeria, tourism developement are left in the hand of government. Government alone cannot develop tourism in Nigeria.

(vi) Inadequate infrastructure: Basic infrast ucture like electricity, pipe- borne water etc are inadequate and in some areas are lacking and this tends to reduce the development of tourism in Nigeria.
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Mass wasting is a general term for the movement of rock or soil down slopes under the force of gravity.

i)geology:Geology refers to characteristics of the material itself. The earth or rock might be weak or fractured, or different layers may have different strengths and stiffness.

ii)morphology:Morphology refers to the structure of the land. For example, slopes that lose their vegetation to fire or drought are more vulnerable to landslides.

iii)human activity:

i)loss of life, destruction of infrastructure,
ii)damage to land
iii)loss of natural resources.


This is any natural or human induced event which poses a serious danger or risk to the lives and properties of people in their environment

Note: the above Questions/Solutions is not for this year 2023 Exam but last year, if you need this year Question and answers message me on WhatsApp 09058738332

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